VELYGER Database: The Oyster Larvae Monitoring French Project
|Temporal extent||2006-06 -2015-09|
|Author(s)||Pouvreau Stephane1, Maurer Daniele2, Auby Isabelle2, Lagarde Franck3, Le Gall Patrik3, Cochet Hélène4, Bouquet Anne-Lise5, Geay Amélie6, Mille Dominique6|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : UMR 6539 LEMAR, Ifremer, 11 presqu’ile du vivier, 29840 Argenton-en-Landunvez, France
2 : LER AR, Ifremer, Quai du Cdt Sihouette, 33120 Arcachon, France
3 : LER LR, Ifremer, Avenue Jean Monnet, 34203 Sète Cedex
4 : Cochet Environnement, Le Coedo, 56550 Locoal Mendon, France
5 : Armeria, 31 bis, rue de la Concorde, 56670 Riantec
6 : CREAA, Prise de Terdoux, 17480 Le Château d’Oléron
Worldwide, shellfish aquaculture and fisheries in coastal ecosystems represent crucial activities for human feeding. But these biological productions are under the pressure of climate variability and global change. Anticipating the biological processes affected by climate hazards remains a vital objective for species conservation strategies and human activities that rely on. Within marine species, filter feeders like oysters are real key species in coastal ecosystems due to their economic and societal value (fishing and aquaculture) but also due to their ecological importance. Indeed oysters populations in good health play the role of ecosystem engineers that can give many ecosystem services at several scales: building reef habitats that contribute to biodiversity, benthic-pelagic coupling and phytoplankton bloom control through water filtration, living shorelines against coastal erosion… The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), which is currently widespread worldwide, was introduced into the Atlantic European coasts at the end of the 19th century for shellfish culture purposes and becomes the main marine species farmed in France (around 100 000 tons) despite severe mortalities crisis. But in the same time and because of warming, natural oysters beds has spread significantly along the French coast and are supposed to have reach approximately 500 000 tons. In that context, Pacific oyster populations (natural and cultivated) in France are the subjects of many scientific projects. Among them, a specific long-term biological monitoring focuses on the reproduction of these populations at a national scale: the VELYGER national program. With more than 8 years of weekly data at many stations in France, this field-monitoring program offers a valuable dataset for studying processes underpinning reproduction cycle of this key-species in relation to environmental parameters, water quality and climate change.
Database content: Larval concentration (number of individuals per 1.5 m3) monitored, since 2008, at several stations in six bays of the French coast (from south to north): Thau Lagoon and bays of Arcachon, Marennes Oléron, Bourgneuf, Vilaine and Brest (see map below).
Methods used to monitor larval concentration: An important volume of seawater (1.5 m3) is pumped twice a week throughout the spawning season (june-september), at one meter below the surface at high tide (+/- 2h) in several sites within each VELYGER ecosystem. Water is filtered trough plankton net fitted with 40 µm mesh. After a proper rinsing of the net, the retained material is transferred into a polyethylene bottle (1 liter) and fixed with alcohol. At laboratory, sample is then gently filtered and rinse again and transferred into eprouvette. Two sub-samples of 1 mL are then taken using a pipette and examined on a graticule slide for microscope. The microscopic examination is made with a conventional binocular optical microscope with micrometer stage at a magnification of 10 X (or above). During the counting, a special care is necessary as larvae of other bivalves are also collected and confusion is possible. Larvae of C. gigas are also classified into four stage of development:
* Larvae that are very closed to settle are sometimes identified into a separated 5th stage, but generally this stage is included in stage IV.
Location of the different Velyger sites along the French coast. From south to north: Thau Lagoon and bays of Arcachon, Marennes Oléron, Bourgneuf, Vilaine and Brest.
Legend: Pacific Oyster Larvae (left side) and Natural oyster bed (right side). Photos : © S. Pouvreau/Ifremer