Marine research covers several specialities, most often developed within international programmes, in keeping with the scale of the problems for ocean and environmental status. The activity involves a small number of public organisations, some of which work in several fields.
- Ifremer, university and CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) oceanography laboratories, the SHOM French Navy hydrographic and oceanographic service, the IRD Research Institute for Development and the IPEV Paul-Emile-Victor Polar Research Institute are the main scientific organisations in public-sector ocean and marine research.
- Earth-observation satellites provide an additional spatial component for oceanographic research. They are financed by CNES National Centre for Space Studies, generally in the framework of bilateral or multilateral co-operation.
- The other principal research bodies involved in ocean studies are: Météo-France (French Meteorological office), INRA (National Agronomy Research Institute), CIRAD Agricultural Research Centre for Development, BRGM Office for Geological and Mining Research.
- Genavir, economic interest group, operates a large part of the ocean research fleet on its own and other partners' behalf, including the research vessels of Ifremer and IRD and the submarine equipment of Ifremer.
The assessment of marine research effort requires a detailed assessment of the staff working on marine science in research organisations. Most of these are not exclusively dedicated to marine science; estimates are thus necessary to value staff costs.
Data source: marine research organisations