Thermohaline Staircases in the Tyrrhenian Sea Experimental data-set (2003-2016)

Date 2019-01
Temporal extent 2003-03-29 -2016-08-20
Author(s) Borghini Mireno2, Durante SaraORCID1, Ribotti AlbertoORCID3, Schroeder KatrinORCID4, Sparnocchia StefaniaORCID1
Contributor(s) Chiggiato JacopoORCID, Gasparini Gian Pietro, Jullion LoicORCID, Manini ElenaORCID, Perilli Angelo, Vetrano AnnaORCID
Affiliation(s) 1 : CNR-ISMAR, Trieste, Italy
2 : CNR-ISMAR, La Spezia, Italy
3 : CNR-IAS, Oristano, Italy
4 : CNR-ISMAR, Venezia, Italy
DOI 10.17882/58697
Publisher SEANOE
Keyword(s) Salinity, Temperature, Tyrrhenian sea, Salt fingers, Thermohaline staircases, Double diffusion, CTD, Hydrological data

This time series has been collected by the Italian Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) in a station located at about 3500 m depth in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (39° 46.85 N, 011° 53.00 E) over the period 2003-2016. The dataset contains 21 hydrological profiles (Pressure (dbar), Temperature (ITS-90, °C) and Salinity) performed on average every six months, with a lack of data in the period 2007-2010. The dataset is highly homogeneous in technical characteristics and quality, since the instrument used to collect most of the data is the same CTD probe (SBE911plus) and data quality procedures have been performed.

The calibration of the probe was performed at the NATO-CMRE Centre of La Spezia up to 2014, and by the manufacturer (SeaBird) or by the Oceanographic Calibration Center of OGS in Trieste thereafter. To verify the post calibration performance of the probe, redundant sensors were often used for both temperature and salinity measurements, and on board salinity analysis of the water samples was performed using a Guideline Autosal or a Portasal salinometer. Raw data are post-processed and averaged at 1 dbar. Until 2014, the data were collected by the Italian R/V URANIA, those of 2015 by the Italian R/V MINERVA UNO, and those of 2016 by the Spanish  R/V Angeles Alvarino.

This is the longest time series (fourteen years) of temperature and salinity of thermohaline staircases due to double diffusion in the salt finger regime ever observed.

Parameters included in the .csv data file:

  • Cruise name (Cruise)

  • Time as julian days (Time_julian day)

  • Latitude

  • Longitude

  • Pressure in dbar (Pressure_dbar)

  • Practical Salinity (Salinity)

  • Temperature ITS-90 in °C (Temperature_ITS-90_°C)

Licence CC-BY-NC-SA
Utilisation These data are published without any warranty: the user assumes all risk arising from his/her use of these data. These data are intended to be quality controlled, but it is possible that they contain errors. It is the unique responsibility of the user to assess if the data are appropriate for his/her use, and to interpret them accordingly. We welcome users to ask questions and report problems to the contact addresses listed in the data files.
Acknowledgements The data used in this work have been collected in the framework of several national and European projects, e.g.: KM3NeT, EU (G.A. no. 011937); SESAME, EU (G.A. no. GOCE-036949); PERSEUS, EU (G.A. no. 287600); OCEAN-CERTAIN, EU (G.A. no. 603773); COMMON SENSE, EU (G.A. no. 228344); EUROFLEETS, EU (G.A. no. 228344); EUROFLEETS-2, EU (G.A. no. 312762); JERICO, EU (G.A. no. 262584); the Italian RITMARE Flagship Project, funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research.
Sensor metadata

Pressure (db), Temperature (ITS-90) in °C and Practical Salinity from a CTD probe SBE911plus


SeaDataNet (standardized data)

File Size Format Processing Access
Dataset 7 MB CSV Processed data Open access
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How to cite 

Borghini Mireno, Durante Sara, Ribotti Alberto, Schroeder Katrin, Sparnocchia Stefania (2019). Thermohaline Staircases in the Tyrrhenian Sea Experimental data-set (2003-2016). SEANOE.

In addition to properly cite this dataset, it would be appreciated that the following work(s) be cited too, when using this dataset in a publication :

Durante S., Schroeder K., Mazzei L., Pierini S., Borghini M., Sparnocchia S. (2019). Permafnent Thermohaline Staircases in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Geophysical Research Letters, -.