Hydrographic data from near-field Doubtful Sound, New Zealand

Date 2020-06
Temporal extent 2016-03-03 -2016-03-14
Author(s) McPherson RebeccaORCID1, Stevens CraigORCID1, 2, O'Callaghan JoanneORCID2, Lucas AndrewORCID3, Nash JonathanORCID4
Affiliation(s) 1 : Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
2 : National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand
3 : Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
4 : College of Earth, Oceans and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
DOI 10.17882/74747
Publisher SEANOE
Keyword(s) river plume, turbulence, stratified flows, internal waves, coastal oceanography
Abstract

Here we provide hydrographic data from the near-field region, Deep Cove, in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. A controlled freshwater discharge is carried from alpine lakes (Manapouri and Te Anau) through the Manapouri hydroelectric power station and, via a constructed channel, into the head of Doubtful Sound, located on the southwest coast of New Zealand (45.3 S, 167 E). The freshwater tailrace is discharged into the head of the inner fjord, Deep Cove. Deep Cove is 3.6 km long and, flanked by steep topography, has a maximum depth of 126m that occurs within 50m of the shoreline. A 2-week field campaign was conducted in March 2016.

A vessel-based survey was conducted to obtain a highly-resolved spatial distribution of density, velocity and turbulence fields within Deep Cove. Along-channel and across-channel vessel transects, aligned with, and perpendicular to, the main river discharge, respectively, were repeated over the course of the field campaign. The along-channel transects represented the path of the mean flow as the vessel drifted with the seawards-propagating plume. A weighted bow chain attached to the vessel was comprised of continuously sampling temperature (RBRsolo) and CTD loggers (RBRconcerto), spaced 0.5m apart and sampled at 2 and 5 Hz respectively. High-resolution profiles of practical salinity and temperature were obtained from “tow-yoed” CTD loggers (RBRconcerto), sampling at 5 Hz. The tow-yoed CTD was continuously profiled with a fall rate of approximately 1m/s. A microstructure profiler (VMP 250, Rockland Scientific) was deployed from the side of the vessel, measuring small scale velocity shear from which estimates of TKE dissipation rates were directly obtained. The VMP was deployed in an upwards-profiling mode which enabled measurements right to the water surface. Further details about the calculation of dissipation rates from velocity shear and other details pertaining to the microstructure data set are thoroughly discussed in Appendix A of McPherson, R. A., Stevens, C. L., & O'Callaghan, J. (2019). Turbulent scales observed in a river plume entering a fjord. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 9190 - 9208, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015448.

Horizontal velocity estimates were obtained from a 600 kHz ADCP (RDI Workhorse) mounted on a pole along-side the vessel 1m below the surface, set to sample water velocity continuously in 1m vertical bins. A 600 kHz narrow-beam echosounder (EK60) was also mounted on the other side of the vessel to provide a means of imaging the flow on fine horizontal and vertical scales. A 600 kHz echosounder (EK60) was positioned 0.5m below the water surface and measured backscatter in 4.5 cm bins down to 38.5m. Precision position data were obtained from an onboard GPS unit.

A schematic of vessel-mounted instrumentation setup including bow chain, pole-mounted ADCP and EK60, tow-yoed CTD and microstructure profiler, as well as further details, are found in: McPherson, R. A., Stevens, C. L., O'Callaghan, J. M., Lucas, A. J., and Nash, J. D.: The role of turbulence and internal waves in the structure and evolution of a near-field river plume, Ocean Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2019-120, in review, 2019.

Licence CC-BY
Acknowledgements This research was funded by the New Zealand Royal Society Marsden Fund, the Sustainable Seas National Science Challenge and the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Strategic Science Investment Fund, and supported by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). The authors would like to thank Brett Grant, Mike Brewer, Tyler Hughen and June Marion, who helped with the 2016 field experiments, and Meridian Energy for providing the tailrace flow data. Bill Dickson and Sean Heseltine from the University of Otago skippered the vessels for the duration of the field campaign. Further details in: McPherson, R. A., Stevens, C. L., O'Callaghan, J. M., Lucas, A. J., and Nash, J. D.: The role of turbulence and internal waves in the structure and evolution of a near-field river plume, Ocean Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2019-120, in review, 2019.
Sensor metadata

Tow-yoed CTD
7 *.rsk files are provided here (065544_YYYYDDMM_*.rsk) using a RBR concerto CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth). The CTD continuously sampled at 5 Hz and was continuously profiled with a fall rate of  approximately 1m/s.
The files are from the days that along-channel transects of the plume were made (07, 08, 11 March 2016) and include the hydrographic data from the across-channel and zig-zag transects too.

=================================================================
Bowchain
20 instruments comprised the 15 m long bowchain: 3 temperature loggers (RBR solo) which sampled at 2 Hz (601xx.rsk) and 17 CTD loggers (RBR concerto) which sampled at 5 Hz (100xxx.rsk).
The files from 3 days are provided here, corresponding to the tow-yoed CTD files above. The depths are measured from the top of the chain. The water offset from the top of the chain changes, but normally ~1m.

Depth (m),          Instrument type,             Serial Number
                         (t – RBRsolo; c – RBRconcetro)

2             t              100694
2.5          t              100695
3             t              100696
3.5          t              100697
4             c              60166
4.5          t              100698
5             t              100699
5.5          t              100700
6             t              100701
6.5          t              100702
7             t              100020
7.9          t              100021
8.9          t              100022
9.5          c              60182
10           t              100024
11           t              100027
12           t              100032
13           t              100033
14           t              100034
14.6       c              60183

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Vessel mounted ADCP (VMADCP)
13 *.ENR ADCP files (DeepCoveMarD00x.ENR) are provided from a 600 kHz ADCP (RDI Workhorse). The ADCP sampled water velocity continuously in 1 m vertical bins, and was mounted on a pole alongside the vessel 1 m below the water surface. Thus the depth range of data was 2.5 – 41.4 m.
The files correspond to the days of the CTD profiles above. The current meter measurements were corrected to account for the 24.28 degree magnetic declination offset.

=================================================================
Turbulence profiles (VMP250)
97 single VMP microstructure profiles are included from a VMP250 (K131_*.P). The VMP was deployed in an upwards-profiling mode, which enabled measurements right to the water surface. The rise rate of the profiler was approximately 0.6 m/s and the shear probes sampled at 512 Hz. The profiles cover the 3 km from the tailrace discharge point to the end of Deep Cove, over the 3 days where along-channel CTD transects were conducted.

Details in McPherson, R. A., Stevens, C. L., O'Callaghan, J. M., Lucas, A. J., and Nash, J. D.: The role of turbulence and internal waves in the structure and evolution of a near-field river plume, Ocean Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2019-120, in review, 2019.

Data
File Size Format Processing Access
All relevant hydrographic data from Deep Cove 890 MB rsk/ENC/P Raw data Open access
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How to cite 

McPherson Rebecca, Stevens Craig, O'Callaghan Joanne, Lucas Andrew, Nash Jonathan (2020). Hydrographic data from near-field Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. SEANOE. https://doi.org/10.17882/74747