ORMEF: Occurrence Records of Mediterranean Exotic Fishes database

The ORMEF database is a comprehensive, and robust compilation of exotic fish observations recorded in the entire Mediterranean Region from 1896 to 2020. ORMEF is composed by 4015 geo-referenced occurrences distributed in the territorial waters of 20 Mediterranean Countries and extracted from 670 scientific published papers. The resultant database is a collection of 188 fish species that are categorized by the entering mean into the Mediterranean Basin in (i) EXOTIC CAN: species coming from Suez Canal; (ii) EXOTIC HM: species introduced by a human vector, e.g. from shipping, mariculture, aquarium release or by means of other human activities; (iii) NRE (natural range expansion): Atlantic species, coming from unassisted immigration through the strait of Gibraltar.

For each record (corresponding to an observation) the following parameters are reported: Species name, AphiaID (as identified by the World register of Marine Species, www. marinespecies.org), Family, Category, Year, Country, Precision of the record (that could be "Precise", "Approximate" of "Conventional"), Latitude, Longitude and the Literature corresponding source.

Each record in the ORMEF database has undergone a quality check for what concerns the accuracy of the source and both geographical and taxonomic biases. ORMEF could be very helpful to inform management strategies and policymakers since it represents a new authoritative reference for Mediterranean bio-invasion research.


Environment, Fisheries and aquaculture, Biological oceanography


Non-indigenous species, Fisheries, Mediterranean Sea, Marine Ecology, Marine Biology, Fishes, Exotic species, Alien species, Lessepsian migration, Suez Canal, Shipping, Aquarium release, Ballast waters, Aquacolture, Neonative species


46.97802N, 28.25043S, 39.81122E, -9.74039W


Occurrence Records of Mediterranean Exotic Fishes
1 MoTSVQuality controlled data
A README file: txt machine-readable file describing the parameters of the database
3 Ko.txtQuality controlled data
How to cite
Azzurro Ernesto, Sonia Smeraldo, Manuela D'Amen (2022). ORMEF: Occurrence Records of Mediterranean Exotic Fishes database. SEANOE. https://doi.org/10.17882/84182
In addition to properly cite this dataset, it would be appreciated that the following work(s) be cited too, when using this dataset in a publication :
Azzurro Ernesto, Smeraldo Sonia, Minelli Annalisa, D’Amen Manuela (2022). ORMEF: a Mediterranean database of exotic fish records. Scientific Data, 9 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-022-01487-z

Copy this text