ClimateFish : Abundance of selected coastal fish species as candidate indicators of climate change in the Mediterranean Sea
|Temporal extent||2009-09-01 -2021-09-23|
|Author(s)||Azzurro Ernesto1, 2, Ballerini Tosca1, 3, Antoniadou Chryssanthi4, Aversa Giulia Domizia5, Ben Souissi Jamila6, Blašković Andrea7, Cappanera Valentina8, Chiappi Marina9, 10, Cinti Maria-Francesca11, Colloca Francesco12, Cvitković Ivan13, D'Amen Manuela1, 3, Despalatović Marija13, Di Franco Antonio14, Dimitriadis Charalampos15, Dragičević Branko13, Fanelli Emanuela9, Figuerola Ferrando Laura16, Fortibuoni Tomaso17, Franzitta Giulio18, Garrabou Joaquim19, Geloso Tatiana20, Ghanem Raouia21, Gori Andrea16, Hervat Martina7, Izquierdo-Muñoz Andres22, Linares Prat Cristina16, La Mesa Gabriele23, Merotto Lorenzo8, Micallef Reno24, Miliou Anastasia25, Minelli Annalisa23, Moschella Paula26, Pannacciulli Federica27, Panzalis Pieraugusto11, Pavičić Mišo13, Petrou Antonis28, Ramos-Esplá Alfonso A.22, Saponari Luca29, Scarcella Giuseppe1, Spoto Marco30, Stagličić Nika13, Vrdoljak Dario13, Vouriot Pauline31, Weitzmann Boris32, Schembri Patrick Joseph24|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : National Research Council, Institute of Biological Resources and Marine Biotechnologies (CNR-IRBIM), Ancona, Italy
2 : Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Integrative Marine Ecology Department, Naples, Italy
3 : Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Integrative Marine Ecology Department, Fano Marine Centre, Fano (PU), Italy
4 : School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
5 : The Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
6 : National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia (INAT), University of Carthage, Tunisia,
7 : Brijuni National Park, Brijuni, Pula, Croatia
8 : Portofino Marine Protected Area - Consortium of Management, Portofino, Italy
9 : Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy
10 : AP Marine Environmental Consultancy Ltd, Aglantzia, Nicosia, Cyprus
11 : Tavolara Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area, Tavolara, Olbia, Sassari, Italy
12 : Stazione Zoologica Anton Dorhn, Integrative Marine Ecology Department, Rome, Italy
13 : Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (IOF), Split, Croatia
14 : Stazione Zoologica Anton Dorhn, Integrative Marine Ecology Department, Palermo, Italy
15 : National Marine Park of Zakynthos, El.Venizelou, Zakynthos Island, Greece
16 : Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, University of Barcelona
17 : Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy
18 : Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, RIMAR Department, Naples, Italy
19 : Institute of Marine Sciences, Spanish Research Council (ICM-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
20 : Mare Nostrum Diving, Palermo, Italy
21 : Biodiversity, Biotechnology and Climate Change Laboratory-LR11ES09, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunisia
22 : Department of Marine Sciences, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
23 : Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Roma, Italy
24 : University of Malta, Msida, Malta
25 : Archipelagos Institute of Marine Conservation, Samos, Greece
26 : Mediterranean Science Commission, CIESM, Monaco
27 : Italian National Agency for New Technologies (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre - S. Teresa, Pozzuolo di Lerici, La Spezia, Italy
28 : Enalia Physis Environmental Research Centre, Nicosia, Cyprus
29 : Nature Seychelles, The Centre for Environment and Education, Roche Caiman, Mahe, Republic of Seychelles
30 : National Research Council, Institute of Biological Resources and Marine Biotechnologies (CNR-IRBIM), Palermo, Italy
31 : Calanques National Park, Marseille, France
32 : Parc Natural del Montgrí, illes Medes i Baix Ter. Estartit, Spain
|Keyword(s)||Mediterranean Sea, climate change indicators, climate warming, visual census, species abundance, species distribution, sea water temperature, global warming, biological invasions, shift species distribution, time series, collaborative monitoring, meridionalization, tropicalization, poleward shifts|
The ClimateFish database collates abundance data of 15 fish species proposed as candidate indicators of climate change in the Mediterranean Sea. An initial group of eight Mediterranean indigenous species (Epinephelus marginatus, Thalassoma pavo, Sparisoma cretense, Coris julis, Sarpa salpa, Serranus scriba, Serranus cabrilla and Caranx crysos) with wide distribution, responsiveness to temperature conditions and easy identification were selected by a network of Mediterranean scientists joined under the CIESM programme ‘Tropical Signals’ (https://www.ciesm.org/marine/programs/tropicalization.htm; Azzurro et al. 2010). Soon after, and thanks to the discussion with other expert groups and projects, C. crysos was no longer considered, and Lessepsian fishes (Red Sea species entering the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal) were included, namely: Fistularia commersonii, Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Pterois miles, Stephanolopis diaspros, Parupeneus forskali, Pempheris rhomboidea and Torquigener flavimaculosus. Considering the trend of increase of these species in the Mediterranean Sea (Golani et al. 2021) and their projected distribution according to climate change scenarios (D’Amen and Azzurro, 2020), more data on these tropical invaders are expected to come in the future implementation of the study.
Data were collected according to a simplified visual census methodology (Garrabou et al. 2019) along standard transects of five minutes performed at a constant speed of 10m/min, corresponding approximately to an area of 50x5m. Four different depth layers were surveyed: 0-3m, 5-10 m, 11-20 m, 21-30 m. So far, the ClimateFish database includes fish counts collected along 3142 transects carried out in seven Mediterranean countries between 2009 and 2021, for a total number of 101'771 observed individuals belonging to the 15 fish species.
Data were collected by a large team of researchers which joined in a common monitoring strategy supported by different international projects, which are acknowledged below. This database, when associated with climate data, offers new opportunities to investigate spatio-temporal effects of climate change in the Mediterranean Sea and test the effectiveness of each species as a possible climate change indicator.
Azzurro E., Maynou F., Moschella P. (2010). A simplified visual census methodology to detect variability trends of coastal mediterranean fishes under climate change scenarios. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 39.
D’Amen, M. and Azzurro, E. (2020). Lessepsian fish invasion in Mediterranean marine protected areas: a risk assessment under climate change scenarios. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 77(1), pp.388-397.
Garrabou, J., Bensoussan, N., Azzurro, E. (2019). Monitoring climate-related responses in Mediterranean marine protected areas and beyond: five standard protocols.
Golani D., Azzurro E., Dulčić J., Massutí E., Orsi-Relini L. (2021). Atlas of Exotic Fishes in the Mediterranean Sea. 2nd edition [F. Briand, Ed.] 365 pages. CIESM Publishers, Paris, Monaco. ISBN number 978-92-990003-5-9
|Acknowledgements||The Mediterranean ClimateFish initiative was initially conceived by the international basin wide monitoring program CIESM Tropical Signals (funded by the Albert II of Monaco Foundation) and subsequently supported by the Interreg Med Programme (Projects: MPA‐Adapt, grant number 1MED15_3.2_M2_337 and MPA-ENGAGE, grant number 5MED18_3.2_M23_007), 85% co funded by the European Regional Development Fund.|