Hydrographic dataset from the Eurofleets+ SINES 2022 research cruise in the Iberian Upwelling System

This dataset contains the hydrographic data for all the stations conducted during the EUROFLEETS+ SINES cruise that took place aboard the R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa between 11-20th of September 2022.  The project "Climate change impact on ocean fronts ecosystems: The case of the Iberian Upwelling System (SINES)" was planned to be a proof of concept cruise of multidisciplinary research: integrating satellite data to past sediment records within classical methods in oceanography research and automated underwater vehicles to tackle the characterization of the Iberian Margin Upwelling System. The overall objective of this study is to identify the changes and risks for marine ecosystem services deriving from the potential impact of climate change on upwelling fronts. This research cruise was funded by the Eurofleets+ SEA Programme Call “REGIONAL” in 2019/2020 and was led by the Centre of Marine Sciences of Algarve (CCMAR, Portugal).

The proposed multidisciplinary expedition was carried out between 11-19th September 2022. Full depth water column CTD profiles were collected at all the stations (15 stations, 19 CTD casts, i.e, four stations with double cast -shallow and deep-). In 12 stations, a vertical multinet haul was also collected. The depth of the multinet samples (100 µm mesh) range between 700 m and surface. A deployment of a Light Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (LAUV Explore-4) was done on 17-18th of September. The AUV conducted more than 100 high-resolution immersion profiles between the surface and 10/50/100 m depth following the track of the research vessel between the coast and the position 37.35ºN 9.4ºW. This repository included also remote sensing data from satellite observations and the processed hull mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data. Complete list of stations, events and positions of EUROFLEETS+ SINES also available in the dataset.



Chemical oceanography, Cross-discipline, Physical oceanography, Biological oceanography


Iberian Upwelling System, Climate Change, Eurofleets+, Hydrography, CTD


39.350368N, 36.119164S, -7.119141E, -11.99707W


  • CTD data
    • Instrument type and sensors: SBE 911plus/917plus CTD, SBE 43 oxygen sensor, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL Fluorescence, WET Labs ECO Turbidity, WET Labs C-Star Beam Transmission and attenuation, Biospherical/Licor Irradiance.
    • Metadata and SBE Data Processing routines info included in the header of each file. A processed *.cnv file per cast created with Seasave V7.
    • Variables included: Pressure (Digiquartz, db), two channels for each Temperature (ITS-90, deg C), Conductivity (uS/cm) and Salinity, Practical (PSU); dissolved oxygen raw, SBE 43 (V) and (umol/kg), Fluorescence (mg/m^3),  Turbidity (NTU), Beam Transmission (%) and Attenuation (1/m), PAR/Irradiance (umol photons/m^2/sec), Potential Temperature (ITS-90, deg C), Density (density, kg/m^3), Latitude and Longitude (deg), oxygen Saturation, Garcia & Gordon (umol/kg) and Time (seconds).


  • Multinet hydrographic data
    • Instrument type and sensors: Multinet "Maxi" HYDRO-BIOS (serial no. 128 08 10). Pressure sensor KELLER/ PA-8/ 8467.8/ SN 180073. Temperature and conductivity sensor SST/1618.
    • Metadata included in the header of each file. Data processed with OceanLab 3, the data acquisition software for HYDRO-BIOS Instruments.
    • Variables included:  Time (hh:mm:ss), Number of net, pressure (dbar), Volume (m³), Flow in (m/s), Flow out (m/s), flow ratio (%), Temperature (°C), Conductivity (mS/cm), Salinity (PSU), Sound Velocity (m/s), density (kg/m³), Spec. Cond. (mS/cm), Pitch and roll (°).


  • Light Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (LAUV Explore-4) data
    • A single file (NetCDF format) with the complete deployment (128097 observations).
    • Metadata included in the file. 
    • Variables included: time, position, depth (m), course over ground (º), Vehicle heading, roll and pitch (º), Speed over ground (m/s), Conductivity (S/m), Salinity (PSU), Temperature CTD (ºC), Sound Speed in the seawater (m/s).


  • Ship Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCPs, 75kHz and 150kHz) data
    • Ocean Surveyor Broadband/Narrowband ADCP under two operating frequencies: 75 kHz and 150 kHz.
    • Processing done with CODAS software.


  • Satellite data
    • AQUA MODIS Ocean color information at Level 2.
    • Temporal range: from 07 to 21.09.2022. 
    • Variables included: Chlorophyll concentration (mg/m3), Photosynthetically Available Radiation (einstein/m2s), Calcite Concentration (mol/m3), Particulate Organic Carbon (mg/m3) among others.


CTD profiles
21 MoTEXTProcessed data
LAUV deployment
7 MoNetCDFProcessed data
Multinet CTD data
648 KoTEXTProcessed data
List of stations_events
8 KoCSVProcessed data
Satellite data files
727 MoNetCDFProcessed data
ADCP processed data
1 GoTEXTProcessed data
How to cite
Fontela Marcos, Abrantes Fátima, Álvarez-Fernández María Jesús, Borges de Sousa João, Choi Wang Dzak, Curbelo David, Fernández-Román Daniel, Ferreira Fernanda, Fuentes-Lema Antonio, Gebara Lívia, Gomes Mara, Herman Temu Verynice, Mega Aline, Mendes Renato, Molina Giulia, Muacho Sergio, Nieto Sofía, Pereira Hélder, Pereira João, Ramalho Sofía, Relvas Paulo, Rios-Yunes Dunia, Serpa Tiago, Voelker Antje (2022). Hydrographic dataset from the Eurofleets+ SINES 2022 research cruise in the Iberian Upwelling System. SEANOE. https://doi.org/10.17882/91156

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