Hydrographic dataset from the Eurofleets+ SINES 2022 research cruise in the Iberian Upwelling System

Date 2022
Temporal extent 2022-09-11 -2022-09-20
Author(s) Fontela MarcosORCID1, 2, Abrantes FátimaORCID1, 3, Álvarez-Fernández María JesúsORCID5, Borges De Sousa JoãoORCID6, Choi Wang Dzak, Curbelo DavidORCID12, Fernández-Román DanielORCID2, Ferreira FernandaORCID3, Fuentes-Lema Antonio2, Gebara LíviaORCID3, Gomes Mara11, Herman Temu Verynice10, Mega AlineORCID1, 3, 4, Mendes RenatoORCID6, 13, Molina GiuliaORCID1, 3, 4, Nieto Sofía2, Pereira HélderORCID8, Pereira João, Ramalho SofíaORCID9, Relvas PauloORCID1, 4, Rios-Yunes DuniaORCID7, Voelker AntjeORCID1, 3
Affiliation(s) 1 : CCMAR - Centro de Ciências do Mar, Campus de Gambelas; 8005-139 Faro; Portugal
2 : Centro de Investigación Mariña (CIM)-Universidade de Vigo, Biological Oceanography group, Edificio Filomena Dato,Campus de Vigo, 36310 Vigo. Galicia. (Spain)
3 : IPMA - Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera; Divisão de Geologia e Georecursos Marinhos; Av. Doutor Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho 6; 1495-165 Alges; Portugal
4 : UAlg - University of Algarve, Estr. da Penha 8005-139 Faro, Portugal.
5 : IIM-CSIC - Instituto de Investigaciones Mariñas, Oceanic Processes in Global Change, R/Eduardo Cabello Nº 6 - CP 36208 Vigo, Galicia, Spain
6 : Underwater Systems and Technology Laboratory (LSTS), Universidade de Porto, Porto, Portugal
7 : NIOZ, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Estuarine and Delta Systems, 5 PO box 140, 4400 AC, Yerseke, The Netherlands
8 : Escola Secundária de Loulé
9 : Universidade de Aveiro, CESAM & Biology Department, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal
10 : University of Dar es Salaam, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere Mlimani Campus , 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
11 : Marine and Environmental Science Centre (MARE), Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
12 : Instituto de Oceanografía y Cambio Global (IOCAG), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
13 : Laboratório Colaborativo para o Atlântico (+Atlantic), Porto, Portugal
DOI 10.17882/91156
Publisher SEANOE
Keyword(s) Iberian Upwelling System, Climate Change, Eurofleets+, Hydrography, CTD

This dataset contains the hydrographic data for all the stations conducted during the EUROFLEETS+ SINES cruise that took place aboard the R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa between 11-20th of September 2022.  The project "Climate change impact on ocean fronts ecosystems: The case of the Iberian Upwelling System (SINES)" was planned to be a proof of concept cruise of multidisciplinary research: integrating satellite data to past sediment records within classical methods in oceanography research and automated underwater vehicles to tackle the characterization of the Iberian Margin Upwelling System. The overall objective of this study is to identify the changes and risks for marine ecosystem services deriving from the potential impact of climate change on upwelling fronts. This research cruise was funded by the Eurofleets+ SEA Programme Call “REGIONAL” in 2019/2020 and was led by the Centre of Marine Sciences of Algarve (CCMAR, Portugal).

The proposed multidisciplinary expedition was carried out between 11-19th September 2022. Full depth water column CTD profiles were collected at all the stations (15 stations, 19 CTD casts, i.e, four stations with double cast -shallow and deep-). In 12 stations, a vertical multinet haul was also collected. The depth of the multinet samples (100 µm mesh) range between 700 m and surface. A deployment of a Light Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (LAUV Explore-4) was done on 17-18th of September. The AUV conducted more than 100 high-resolution immersion profiles between the surface and 10/50/100 m depth following the track of the research vessel between the coast and the position 37.35ºN 9.4ºW. Complete list of stations, events and positions of EUROFLEETS+ SINES also available in the dataset.


Licence CC-BY
Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement n° 824077. This work was partially supported by JUNO - Robotic exploration of Atlantic waters – Refª 2021/0008 - from the Luso-American Development Foundation. Marcos Fontela was funded by a Juan de La Cierva Formación fellowship (FJC2019-038970-I, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spanish Goverment) and by Portuguese national funds from FCT—Foundation for Science and Technology through project UIDB/04326/2020. The authors acknowledge the Capitan and personnel onboard R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa for their essential contribution to the success of this campaign; the UTM-CSIC technicians by their professional work and effort for the well-functioning of all the gear onboard.
Sensor metadata
  • CTD data
    • Instrument type and sensors: SBE 911plus/917plus CTD, SBE 43 oxygen sensor, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL Fluorescence, WET Labs ECO Turbidity, WET Labs C-Star Beam Transmission and attenuation, Biospherical/Licor Irradiance.
    • Metadata and SBE Data Processing routines info included in the header of each file. A processed *.cnv file per cast created with Seasave V7.
    • Variables included: Pressure (Digiquartz, db), two channels for each Temperature (ITS-90, deg C), Conductivity (uS/cm) and Salinity, Practical (PSU); dissolved oxygen raw, SBE 43 (V) and (umol/kg), Fluorescence (mg/m^3),  Turbidity (NTU), Beam Transmission (%) and Attenuation (1/m), PAR/Irradiance (umol photons/m^2/sec), Potential Temperature (ITS-90, deg C), Density (density, kg/m^3), Latitude and Longitude (deg), oxygen Saturation, Garcia & Gordon (umol/kg) and Time (seconds).


  • Multinet hydrographic data
    • Instrument type and sensors: Multinet "Maxi" HYDRO-BIOS (serial no. 128 08 10). Pressure sensor KELLER/ PA-8/ 8467.8/ SN 180073. Temperature and conductivity sensor SST/1618.
    • Metadata included in the header of each file. Data processed with OceanLab 3, the data acquisition software for HYDRO-BIOS Instruments.
    • Variables included:  Time (hh:mm:ss), Number of net, pressure (dbar), Volume (m³), Flow in (m/s), Flow out (m/s), flow ratio (%), Temperature (°C), Conductivity (mS/cm), Salinity (PSU), Sound Velocity (m/s), density (kg/m³), Spec. Cond. (mS/cm), Pitch and roll (°).


  • Light Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (LAUV Explore-4) data
    • A single file (NetCDF format) with the complete deployment (128097 observations).
    • Metadata included in the file. 
    • Variables included: time, position, depth (m), course over ground (º), Vehicle heading, roll and pitch (º), Speed over ground (m/s), Conductivity (S/m), Salinity (PSU), Temperature CTD (ºC), Sound Speed in the seawater (m/s).


In the near future, this dataset will be extended with data from Ship Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (SADCPs, 75kHz and 150kHz) and Microstructure vertical profiler (MSS-90). 

File Size Format Processing Access
CTD profiles 21 MB TEXTE Processed data Open access
LAUV deployment 7 MB NC, NetCDF Processed data Open access
Multinet CTD data 648 KB TEXTE Processed data Open access
List of stations_events 8 KB CSV Processed data Open access
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How to cite 

Fontela Marcos, Abrantes Fátima, Álvarez-Fernández María Jesús, Borges De Sousa João, Choi Wang Dzak, Curbelo David, Fernández-Román Daniel, Ferreira Fernanda, Fuentes-Lema Antonio, Gebara Lívia, Gomes Mara, Herman Temu Verynice, Mega Aline, Mendes Renato, Molina Giulia, Nieto Sofía, Pereira Hélder, Pereira João, Ramalho Sofía, Relvas Paulo, Rios-Yunes Dunia, Voelker Antje (2022). Hydrographic dataset from the Eurofleets+ SINES 2022 research cruise in the Iberian Upwelling System. SEANOE. https://doi.org/10.17882/91156