Applicability of the gape monitor to study flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) feeding behaviour

Date 2022
Temporal extent 2018-08-05 -2021-06-21
Author(s) Tonk Linda3, Witbaard RobORCID2, Van Dalen Pim3, Cheng Chiu H.ORCID3, Kamermans PaulineORCID1, 3
Affiliation(s) 1 : Wageningen Marine Research, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 77, 4400 AB Yerseke, The Netherlands
2 : Department of Estuarine and Delta Systems, NIOZ; Netherlands Institute for Sea Research PO Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke, The Netherlands
3 : Marine Animal Ecology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 226, 6700 AE Wageningen, the Netherlands
DOI 10.17882/92105
Publisher SEANOE
Keyword(s) Ostrea edulis, oyster reef restoration, North Sea, valve gape monitor, Voordelta
Abstract

Innovative techniques are needed to assess oyster performance in flat oyster reef restoration projects. A valve gape monitor, a device that continuously measures opening and closing of live bivalves, can potentially be used as an effective method to determine survival and behaviour of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. The method has been successfully used in combination with a number of bivalve species to investigate valve gape activity in response to environmental factors.

In this study, eight O. edulis were equipped with valve gape sensors in order to relate gape to environmental conditions such as food availability. Valve gape activity was monitored under controlled laboratory conditions, with and without food, in a concrete basin in the Oosterschelde and in the field (Voordelta, Dutch North Sea). Under controlled laboratory conditions, oysters clearly responded to changes in food availability. Starved  oysters closed their valves significantly longer than oysters that received food, and the relative gape width in fed oysters were larger. In the concrete basin (Oosterschelde), a positive correlation between valve opening and Chlorophyll-a was found. Additionally, valve gape activity and tidal movement appeared to be linked. When exposed to a full tidal cycle (Voordelta), a negative correlation between valve opening and Chlorophyll-a was found. However, there was no correlation between valve gape and current velocity. In autumn, longer periods of inactivity were seen, but when valves opened, the valve gape was larger. These data indicate that valve gape can provide valuable information on behaviour (gape frequency and gape width), but also show that it is not necessarily a good proxy for feeding rate. Nevertheless, these results show that the gape monitor can be used to determine the natural behaviour of flat oysters under field conditions, and that gape opening provides information on behaviour and the stress response of bivalves to environmental conditions. 

Licence CC-BY-NC-ND
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality for the purposes of Knowledge Based Research (Theme ‘Natuurinclusieve windparken' project no. KB 33-004-003 and the Theme ‘Marine Resources in Circular Climate Smart Food Systems’ project no. KB 34-001-002). We acknowledge JIP ECO-FRIEND (RVO reference number TEWZ118017) Top Sector Energy Subsidy from the Ministry of Economic Affairs for funding parts of this research. We would like to thank Joost Bergsma from Waardenburg Ecology, Oscar Bos and Joop Coolen from Wageningen Marine Research for their help with deployment and retrieval of the valve gape monitor.
Sensor metadata

Scripts:

klepstand_betonbak.R – script to process raw data from the betonbak experiment

Klepstand_fed_starved_experiment.R – script to process the raw data from the feeding/starvation lab experiment

klepstand_Voordelta_experiment.R – script to process the raw data from the Voordelta (spring/autumn) experiment

Klepstand_final_data_processing.R – script to further process the post-processed data files

Klepstand_Figures for publication.R – script to make plots for the publication (Figures 3 – 10, Supplemental Figure 5)

 

Raw data files

Feeding/starvation experiment:

07#Oysters_05092018-12092018.DAT –gape measurements

Aanwezig klimaatkamer klepstandmonitor_compleet.txt – date/time information of the gape measurements

 

Betonbak experiment

Klepstand_betonbak.DAT – gape measurements

Chlorofyl klepstand 08052020-10152020.csv – chlorophyll, turbidity and temperature measurements

 

Voordelta experiment

Voordelta juni 2021.DAT – gape measurements from the spring

Voordelta februari 2020.DAT – gape measurements from the autumn

Chl 20210510_0900_ACLW-USB_0753_103456_A.csv - chlorophyll, turbidity and temperature measurements from spring

Chl data voordelta1_winter.csv - chlorophyll, turbidity and temperature measurements from autumn

Data Aquadopp klepstand voordelta 20-07-2021.csv – flow measurements from the spring

data aquadopp klepstand_winter.csv – flow measurements from the autumn

 

Tidal information downloaded from the Rijkswaterstaat

NVT_WATHTBRKD_YERSKE.csv – data from Yerseke buoy (match with the Betonbak experiment)

NVT_WATHTBRKD_ROOMPBTN_autumn.csv – data from Roompot buoy (match with the autumn Voordelta experiment)

NVT_WATHTBRKD_ROOMPBTN_spring.csv – data from Roompot buoy (match with the spring Voordelta experiment)

Data
File Size Format Processing Access
script to process raw data from the betonbak experiment 10 KB R Open access
script to process raw data from the betonbak experiment 3 KB R Open access
script to process the raw data from the Voordelta (spring/autumn) experiment 21 KB R Open access
script to further process the post-processed data files 25 KB R Open access
script to make plots for the publication (Figures 3 – 10, Supplemental Figure 5) 25 KB R Open access
gape measurements 3 MB DAT Raw data Open access
date/time information of the gape measurements 3 KB TEXTE Raw data Open access
gape measurements 33 MB DAT Raw data Open access
chlorophyll, turbidity and temperature measurements 4 MB CSV Raw data Open access
gape measurements from the spring 15 MB DAT Raw data Open access
gape measurements from the autumn 68 MB DAT Raw data Open access
chlorophyll, turbidity and temperature measurements from spring 4 MB CSV Raw data Open access
chlorophyll, turbidity and temperature measurements from autumn 9 MB CSV Raw data Open access
flow measurements from the spring 1 MB CSV Raw data Open access
flow measurements from the autumn 2 MB CSV Raw data Open access
data from Yerseke buoy (match with the Betonbak experiment) 416 KB CSV Raw data Open access
data from Roompot buoy (match with the autumn Voordelta experiment) 511 KB CSV Raw data Open access
data from Roompot buoy (match with the spring Voordelta experiment) 613 KB CSV Raw data Open access
Top of the page

How to cite 

Tonk Linda, Witbaard Rob, Van Dalen Pim, Cheng Chiu H., Kamermans Pauline (2022). Applicability of the gape monitor to study flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) feeding behaviour. SEANOE. https://doi.org/10.17882/92105